F. Man in Drylands

F.1. Building Design in the Desert (4 credits)

Prerequisites: First professional degree in architecture or equivalent, subject to approval by instructor.

Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
22 2

The course will focus on the special characteristics of building in the desert and on the opportunities that the desert offers for building passive low energy structures. The course will try to show that with the proper design of buildings in a properly designed neighborhood, the desert offers very good indoor and outdoor conditions, often better than those offered in locations which are not in the desert. The course consists of three parts: 1. Man and his Environment - The human body under environmental stress conditions and thermal comfort and discomfort 2. Environmental monitoring the climate and the natural environment 3. Basic technical issues specific to building in the desert - low energy structures of which the design is based on desert characteristics - solar energy, wind, low relative humidity, large daily temperature amplitudes etc. For cases where this is not possible or sufficient, the course will introduce other measures that can reduce thermal and visual stresses from the buildings and their occupants.

Lectures:
  • Types of climate.
  • Sun & atmosphere.
  • Building thermodynamics.
  • Building layouts.
  • Orientations.
  • The building envelope.
  • Building materials.
  • Passive solar heating.
  • Passive cooling: Evaporative, convective and radiative.
  • Earth bermed and earth sheltered structures.
  • Openings in buildings: day lighting, shading and ventilation.

Lecturer: Y. Etzion

Recommended Reading: Will be Distributed


F.2. Urban and Regional Planning for Arid Zones (3 credits)

Prerequisites: None

Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
31  

The course introduces strategies of urban design and planning aimed at stimulating urban and regional development in peripheral arid regions. The course covers the following major topics: the history of desert urbanization; development specifics of peripheral desert settlements; factors affecting population attractiveness of desert communities; patterns of physical development of desert towns, and interaction between population and the built environment in desert areas. The course is aimed at graduate students specializing in geography, urban and regional development.

Lectures:
  • General theories and contemporary approaches to urban and regional planning.
  • Preconditions for urban development in desert regions.
  • General patterns of urban development in arid zones.
  • Urban settlements in the desert: prehistoric and historic background.
  • Examples of desert communities today: population and physical development.
  • Socio-economic and physical factors imposed upon desert settlements.
  • Physical development of desert communities - building types and density patterns.
  • Preconditions for socio-economic success of desert towns.

Lecturer: Boris A.Portnov

Recommended Reading:

Golany, G. (ed.). (1978). Urban planning for arid zones. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Middleton, N. and D. Thomas (eds). (1997). Word Atlas of Desertification. Arnold, London.
Portnov, B. A. and A. P. Hare (eds). (1999). Desert Regions: Population, Migration, and Environment. Springer, Berlin.


F.3. Dust in the Urban Environment (2 credits)

Prerequisites: First professional degree in architecture or equivalent, subject to approval by instructor.

Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
2    

The urban Climate differs in many ways from the climate of exposed natural terrain. In particular, the urban wind field differs from that of the exposed, open terrain, affecting processes of dust transport and deposition the course will deal with various aspects of the urban climate, such as the "urban heat island" and variations in rainfall, as well as the effects on air circulation. The basic aeolian processes will be introduced, and the effect of the urban environment on dust deposition analyzed. Design strategies appropriate to the design of buildings, attached outdoor space and large public spaces in desert communities will be described. Large public spaces in desert communities will be described.

Lecturer: E. Erell

Recommended Reading:
Pye, K. (1987). Aeolian Dust and Dust Deposits. Academic Press,London, p. 334.
Oke, T.R. (1987). Boundary Layer Climates. Methuen & Co., London p. 435.
Landsberg, H.E. (1981). The Urban Climate. Academic Press, New York, p. 275.


F.4. Desert Architecture from Antiquity to Modern Vernacular (2 credits)

Prerequisites: First professional degree in architecture or in archeology.

Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
22 2

Investigation of the responses of desert civilizations to the constraints of the desert environment, including construction material availability, development of appropriate structural systems and details, cooling and heating technologies, water collection and storage systems, and urban design concepts and implementation. Evolution The evolution of the different principles and practices through history and geography, from antiquity to modern vernacular, will be reviewed in an attempt to show that essentially similar environmental conditions affect similarly the built environment. The course covers seemingly diverge subjects:

Lectures:
  • Mesopotamia and native American pueblos.
  • Plato, Vitruvius and Ralph Erskine.
  • Architecture in Moorish Spain and Moghul India, the northwestern provinces of P.R.China and modern vernacular in the Middle East.

Lecturer: I.A. Meir

Recommended Reading:
Cofaigh, E.O. et al. (1996). The Climatic Dwelling: An Introduction to Climate-Responsive Residential Architecture. James & James, London.
Butti, K. and J. Perlin (1980). A Golden Thread: 2500 Years of Solar Architecture and Technology. Cheshire Books, Palo Alto/Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Rapoport, A. (1969). House, Form and Culture. Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
Oliver, P. (ed.) (1998). Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World. Cambridge University Press.


F.5. Urban Microclimate in the Desert (2 credits)

Prerequisites: None

Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
2   

This course will introduce the climatic aspects of urban design within the context of sustainable development in desert regions. A number of connections between sustainability and urban climate will be discussed, in terms of population attractiveness, thermal comfort and energy, and the sustainable use of resources. The basic concepts of climatic modification in built-up areas will be presented with an emphasis on the micro-scale phenomena which are directly influenced by urban and architectural design: exchanges of energy through radiation, convection and evaporation at the scale of urban open spaces are discussed in the context of an arid climate. Also, a range of tools and techniques for responding to the constraints of microclimate will be offered, which can be used in the planning and design of new developments or for the improvement of existing urban areas.

Lectures:
  • Urban attractiveness and the image of the desert
  • Thermal comfort, energy and environmental quality
  • Scales of climatic modification
  • Boundary layer exchanges of energy and moisture
  • The urban heat island and the urban canyon
  • Solar and terrestrial radiation
  • Wind and convection
  • Planning for outdoor comfort in desert cities

    Lecturer: D. Pearlmutter

    Recommended Reading:
    Givoni, B. (1989). Urban Design in Different Climates. World Meteorological Organization.
    Monteith, J.L. (1973). Principles of Environmental Physics. Edward Arnold Publishers, London, pp. 74-77.
    Oke, T.R. (1987). Boundary Layer Climates. Methuen: London & New York, second edition.


    F.6. Dryland, People and Sustainable Development(2 credits)

    Prerequisites: None

    Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
    21  

    The course deals with environmental, social and governance dimensions of sustainable development in arid regions. Deserts and drylands constitute about one third of the terrestrial surface of the Earth. Nearly half the nations of the world have to cope, at least in part of their territory, with the constraining factors of aridity. Water scarcity and limited agricultural potential are usually the principal constraints. A good example is the Israeli case of water policy, water law and water management, in relation to agricultural water use and of drought resulting from socio-economic policies. A paradigm for sustainable development in arid zones will be presented and discussed in relation to proactive planning and interactive management. Various case studies will be included, such as human-made desertification in the Aral Sea basin.

    Lectures:
    • Classification of deserts and arid zones in the world.
    • Traditional land use and water management in arid zones.
    • Drought and the international convention to combat desertification.
    • Examples of arid-zone development in different parts of the world.
    • A paradigm for sustainable development in arid zones.
    • Proactive planning and interactive management.

    Lecturer: H. J. Bruins

    Recommended Reading:
    Beaumont, P. (1989). Drylands: Environmental Management and Development. Routledge, London and New York.
    Bruins, H.J. and H. Lithwick (Eds.) (1998). The Arid Frontier: Interactive Management of Environment and Development. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
    Mortimore, M. (1998). Roots in the African Dust: Sustaining the Sub-Saharan Drylands. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    Sharp, K. (1998). Between Relief and Development: targeting food aid for disaster prevention in Ethiopia. RRN Network Papers No. 27. Relief and Rehabilitation Network (RRN), Overseas Development Institute (ODI), London.


    F.7. Small Groups in Relative Isolation (2 credits)

    Prerequisites: None

    Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
    2   

    The course will introduce some basic concepts concerning social behavior in small groups drawn from dramaturgical, functional, and dimensions of interaction perspectives. Small groups of persons living and working in relative isolation in deserts and other hostile environments have to deal not only with the ordinary problems of coordinating work activity and interpersonal relations among their members, but also the effects of social and physical isolation. In addition to noting the problems, the course will include a discussion of some of the methods that have been found to be effective for dealing with the problems.

    Lectures:
    • Small groups and community life in deserts and hostile environments.
    • Agricultural collectives in deserts.
    • Groups of experts (engineers and industrial innovators) when living and working in relative isolation.
    • Groups that transfer advanced technology to desert societies.
    Lecturer: P. Hare

    Recommended Reading:
    Hare, A.P. (1991). Creativity in Small Groups. Sage, Beverly Hills.
    Hare, A.P. (1992). Groups, Teams and Social Interaction; Theories & Applications. New York: Praeger.
    Hare, A.P. (1993). Small Groups in Organizations in: Handbook of Organizational Behavior (R.T. Golembiewski, ed.). New York, Dekker, pp. 6189.


    F.8. Nomadic Pastoralism Since Time Immemorial (2 credits)

    Prerequisites: Some background in the history of the Middle East and the anthropology of pastoral societies.

    Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
    2  1

    This course introduces the prehistory and history of Middle Eastern societies since the climatic constraints of the Holocene (the last10-12 thousands millennia) have evolved, as viewed throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Particular attention will be given to the two tracks along which the Neolithic revolution had evolved, that is, from hunting and gathering 1) to domestication of livestock and 2) to domestication of flora. Shepherds and peasants.

    Lectures:
    • Human evolution.
    • Anthropological scopes of life in devastated savana lands.
    • The track of shepherding.
    • The track of early farming.
    • Revelations of complementarily and rivalry between shepherds and farmers.

    Lecturer: G. M. Kressel

    Recommended Reading:
    Ibn Khaldun, (1958) [1377]. The Muqaddimah. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London
    Bar-Yosef, O. and A. Khazanov. (1992). Pastoralism in the Levant: Archaeological Materials in Anthropological Perspectives. Prehistory Press, Madison.


    F.9. Social and Economic Development in Isreal's Desert and Arid Regions (2 credits)

    Prerequisites: None

    Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
    2   

    The social and economic development of Israel's desert and arid regions illustrates the problems and possibilities of such regions. In the field of settlement an important problem, as for other peripheries, has been providing quality services at affordable prices. For economic development, numerous sources of income have been tried, overcoming transportation costs and a harsh environment. Mineral extraction (the Dead Sea Works); irrigated agriculture, mostly in collectives (kibbutzim) and cooperatives (moshavim); tourism (Elath, the Dead Sea, etc) and chemical industries (near Beer Sheva), have all been successful for long stretches of time. During the last decade, settlements and enterprises have met the challenges posed by the transformation of the country's political economy, including de-cooperativisation and the lowering of the barriers which separated it from other sectors (in the rural sector) as well as privatization (in all sectors). The course will analyze problems and coping strategies, successes and failures, and try to understand why in the end, with only 8% of Israel's population and high unemployment, the Negev has not achieved the goals set to it by policy makers - politicians and planners.

    Lectures:
    • Transportation and Services in the Negev.
    • The changing relation of urban and rural development in the Negev.
    • The rise of Beer Sheva and its implications for economic development theories.
    • Cities in the Negev vs. non-desert Peripheries (Arad vs. Carmiel): some implications.
    • The Decline of Agriculture collective and cooperative.
    • Economic and Ecological Sustainability in the Development of the Negev - Flowering Desert or National Dumping Ground?
    • The lessons of the Development of the Negev.

    Lecturer: Moshe Schwartz

    Recommended Reading: Provided at the beginning of the course


    F.10. Desert Settlements Through Time (4 credits)

    Prerequisites: First degree in architecture, archeology or geography

    Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
    2  4

    This course is aimed at analyzing and comparing regional and urban features of desert settlement in past and present. Settlements are examined from the perspective of sustainability - or the lack of it! - in arid environments. The Negev desert and its settlements will be used as demonstration paradigms of the analysis approach. Examples from other arid regions, such as the Northwestern Provinces of the P.R. China and Africa, will also be discussed. The course should include a 3-4 days field trip from the port of Ashkelon, through the Nabatean-Byzantine settlements of Elussa (Haluza), Sobota (Shivta) and Oboda (Avdat), along the Spices Trail to Petra, the capital of the Nabatean Kingdom. This will facilitate understanding the character and spatial distribution of ancient desert settlements, in comparison to modern settlements in the same area, in terms of transportation, water availability, dwelling type, desert architecture, security and other considerations.

    Lectures:
    • The Negev climate and settlement history.
    • Dwelling types.
    • The societal and economic organizations of pastoralism and rainwater-harvesting agriculture (runoff farming), as well as management of water, soil and other resources.
    • Settlement site location and planning.
    • Runoff and erosion control, treatment of settlement edges and Hinterland.
    • Use of local runoff in urban contexts.
    • Byzantine retaining walls for controlling floods and erosion.
    • Contemporary town planning and urban design practices.

    Lecturers: Isaac A. Meir and Hendrik J. Bruins

    Recommended reading:
    Bruins, H. J. (1986). Desert Environment and Agriculture in the Central Negev and Kadesh-Barnea During Historical Times. Midbar Foundation, Nijkerk, The Netherlands.
    Colt, D. (ed.) (1962). Excavations at Nessana. Vol.1, British School of Archeaology in Jerusalem, London.
    Negev, A. (1988). The Architecture of Mampsis, I & II: The Middle and Late Nabatean Periods. QEDEM 26 & 27. Israel Exlporation Society, Jerusalem.
    Nevo, Y. D.(1991). Pagans and Herders: A Re-examination of the Negev Runoff Cultivation Systems in the Byzantine and Early Arab Periods. Negev Archaeological Project for the Study of Ancient Arab Desert Cultures, Achva Press, Jerusalem.
    Bienkowski, P. and B. Chlebik. (1991). Changing places: architecture and spatial organization of the Bedul in Petra. Levant 23:147-180.


    F.11. Desert and Arid Zone Economics (2 credits)

    Prerequisites: None

    Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
    2   

    Plagued by insufficient infrastructures, inaccessible services, and poor transportation, as well as harsh environments, the dwellers of deserts and arid regions are usually poor. Economic activities capable of improving their standards of living, and remedying the above problems include the exploitation of mineral resources, irrigation, and desert industrialization. However, such activities may damage fragile ecologies or require expensive technologies, to prevent damage. This course will analyze development attempts and policies in some of the world's deserts, in developed countries (Australia, the United States, Israel) as well as in LDC's (Kenya, the Horn of Africa, the Sahel). The course will also study the conditions whereby the development or arid zones and deserts is likely to be effective as well as economically and ecologically sustainable.

    Lectures:
    • The Delivery of Services in Sparsely Populated Regions.
    • Transportation in Desert and Arid Zones.
    • Services and Infrastructures in Desert and Arid Zones.
    • Water Industries and Extraction in Desert and Arid Zones.
    • Agriculture in Desert and Arid Zones.
    • Economic and Ecological Sustainability - some inter-relations.
    • Desert and Arid Zones in Developed and Less Developed Countries.

    Lecturer: Moshe Schwartz

    Recommended reading:
    Clarke, J. I. and D. Noin (eds). (1998). Population and Environment in Arid Regions. UNESCO, Paris.
    Dehter, A. (1987). Social Service Delivery Systems in Sparsely Populated Regions: Israeli Rural Development Planning. Westview, Boulder, Col.
    Portnov, B. A. and A. P. Hare (eds). (1999). Desert Regions: Population, Migration and Environment. Springer, Berlin.
    Reisner, M. (1993). Cadillac Desert: the American West and its disappearing Water. Viking, New York.


    F.12. Water Politics in Arid Regions (2 credits)

    Prerequisites: None
    Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
    2   

    State involvement in water management and distribution was already common in the Middle East and China in antiquity. Such involvement continues into the present as, aridity and drought, entitlements, pressure groups, riparian rights and international law all play a role in the dramas of hydro-politics. Technological development, especially in the modern era, has increased the capacity to extract and supply water, while the demand for it has increased even faster. Environmental constraints have remained especially in arid regions. These constraints require regulation, an increasingly important function as states retreat from management and distribution.

    Lectures:
    • Historical Review.
    • Environmental Limitations and Technological Developmen.
    • The Nile Basin and Hydro-politics.
    • Water politics in Australia.
    • Water Politics and Regulation.
    • Water Bureaucracies and Pressure Groups.

    Lecturers: Moshe Schwartz and Hendrik Bruins

    Recommended Reading:
    Bruins, H. J. and M. Schwartz (2000). "Political, Legal and Institutional Factors in the Management of Water Resources in Israel." In E. Cabrera and J. Lund (eds.). Water Conservation, Water Supply and System Integration. Balkema, The Netherlands
    Langford, J. K. (1999). Towards a Financially Sustainable Irrigation System: Lessons from the State of Victoria Australia 1984-1994. World Bank Technical Papers 413,423.
    Lees, S. H. (1998). The Political Ecology of the Water Crisis. University Press of America, New York.
    Lowi, M. R. (1995). Water and Power: The Politics of A Scarce Resource in the Jordan River Basin. Cambridge Middle East Library, 31.


    F.13. The Latter Phases of Pastoral Nomadism in the Middle East (3 credits)

    Prerequisites: Some background in the recent history of the Middle East, particularly in view the modern state formation and the anthropology of pastoral societies in the region's states.

    Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
    2  2

    This course introduces the history of the Bedouin and the state formation in the Middle East during the last two centuries. Attention will be given to perceptions of statehood and citizenship as they regard the Bedouins. We shall survey the macro and micro politics and economy, paying particular attention to the straightjacket of tribal identity in view of the modern military and the civil service. Land uses will be revisited along the transition from shepherding to shepherding and farming, and holding of remunerated jobs in towns. The spreading of market economy and the growth of towns will be tested through the Bedouin prism.

    Lectures:
    • Strategic advantage and disadvantage.
    • The strait jacket of tribal identity.
    • One way migration, from desert to town.
    • Markets and market economy.
    • Alternative C; Amelioration of flora by the Bedouin, as forage for their herds, in deep desert lands.

    Lecturer: Gideon M. Kressel

    Recommended reading:
    Lancaster, W. and F. Lancaster. (1999). People, Land and Water in the Arab Middle East: Environments and Landscapes in the Bilad ash-Sham. Academic Publications, Harwood.


    F.14. What is Sustainable Development? Theoretical Perspectives and Practice
         (2 credits)

    Prerequisites: None

    Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
    2   

    Repeated failure of development programs has led policy makers to realize that the benefits of programs must be sustained. How do we understand this recent idea of sustainable development? and what are its practical implications, particularly for desert and semi-arid regions? This course will review the range of theories that have framed the idea of development in order to understand the more recent notion of sustainable development.

    Issues to be discussed in the course include:

    • What are the underlying assumptions in the most popular, liberal idea of development?
    • What were the criticisms leveled against the liberal approach?
    • Is there a serious alternative to the liberal tradition in contemporary critical theories?
    • What role does environmental factors play in the process of development of arid zones vis-a-vis social and political factors?
    • Several lectures will be devoted to the analysis of specific case studies that have set to create sustainable development.

    Lecturer: Pnina Mutzafi-Haller

    Recommended Reading:
    Escobar, A. (1995). Encountering Development. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
    Ferguson, J. (1990). The Anti-Politics Machine. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
    United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. (1997).
    Various essays. Interim Secretariat for the Convention to Combat Desertification, Geneva, Switzerland.


    F.15. Research Methods in Desert Architecture (4 credits)

    Prerequisites: None

    Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
    222 

    This course will introduce the student to a range of tools and techniques which can be used for studying the built environment in a region with distinct biophysical characteristics, such as a desert. Introductory lectures will be accompanied by hands-on laboratory sessions in which students will become acquainted with the various methods, and subsequently each student will be required to carry out an exercise in which one or more of the techniques presented is employed for the acquisition or generation of data. Methods to be presented will focus on architectural and environmental issues at the level of the individual building as well as the larger urban fabric.

    Lectures:
    • Thermal simulation for prediction and analysis of building performance
    • Microclimatic measurements of indoor and outdoor parameters
    • Application of CAD modeling tools for building-energy problems
    • GIS mapping and spatial analysis in urban design and planning
    • Techniques for historical building analysis
    • Evaluation of construction materials and their properties

    Lecturer: David Pearlmutter and staff

    Recommended reading: To be provided during the course.


    F.16. Research Methods in Social Science (4 credits)

    Prerequisites: None

    Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
    22 2

    The course will provide an introduction to methods of research in social science that can be used to report on and evaluate the social aspects of the transfer of technology, especially forms of social organization. Three major perspectives will be introduced: survey research, qualitative research, and anthropological research which combines both approaches.

    Lectures:
    • Research design
    • Pretest and pilot study
    • Survey methods
    • Qualitative methods
    • Anthropological methods
    • Research reports

    Lecturer: Paul Hare and staff

    Recommended reading:
    Bailey, K. D. (1987). Methods of social research. Free Press, New York.
    Lofland, J. and L. H. Lofland. (1995). Analyzing social settings. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Pelto, P. J. and G. H. Pelto. (1999). Anthropological research. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


    F.17. Gender and Development (2 credits)

    Prerequisites: A passing grade in the course-What is Sustainable Development?

    Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
    2   

    Over the past two decades, as development became more people centered, the role of women in agricultural production became a center for research and policy attention. The recent United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, for example, stressed that full participation of both men and women at all levels in programs to combat desertification must be ensured. The approach of development specialists had changed from one of viewing Third World women as impediments to development due to their presumed tradition-bound nature, into a more recent view that sees women as the key to agricultural production and as managers of the range.

    The course will focus on the following questions:

    • What is a gender perspective?
    • Why is the gender perspective so prevalent in contemporary discussions and implementation of development programs?
    • How do we plan projects with gender in mind?
    • The course draws on a range of case-studies as well as theoretical views to discuss these questions.

    Lecturer: Pnina Mutzafi-Haller

    Recommended Reading:
    Mwangi, W. (1997). A Gender Analysis of Decision-Making in the Global Bodies of the UN convention to Combat Desertification. UNSO Publication, New York.
    Karl, M. (1995). Women and Empowerment: Participation and Decision Making. United Nations Development Fund For Women, New York.
    March, M. H. and J. Parpart (eds). (1995). Feminism, Postmodernism and Development. Routledge, London.


    F.18 Dryland Hazards, Contingency Planning and Crisis Management (2 credits)

    Prerequisites: Course-Desert Environments, People and Sustainable Development.

    Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
    21  

    The course focuses on natural and human-made hazards in drylands and the need to develop proactive contingency planning and crisis management suited for arid regions. The tragic drought, desiccation and human suffering in the African Sahel during the 1970s and 1980s drew much attention in the media. About 10 million people became "environmental" refugees or displaced persons. The impact of a hazard on society is complex, involving vulnerability, coping-mechanisms, economic strength, access to resources, resilience, etc. Proactive mitigation planning and crisis management mechanisms suited for arid zones may dramatically improve response to a disaster situation.

    Lectures:
      Natural hazards and disasters in drylands.
    • The phenomenon of drought and its impact in different drylands of the world.
    • Drought preparedness and mitigation planning.
    • Mass emergencies and the need for shelter, sanitation, water, food, etc.
    • Proactive contingency planning and crisis management.
    • Temporary human settlement planning for displaced populations in emergencies.

    Lecturer: H. J. Bruins

    Recommended Reading:
    Bruins, H. J. and H. Lithwick. (eds). (1998). The Arid Frontier Interactive Management of Environment and Development. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
    Burr, M. and R. O. Collins. (1995). Requiem for the Sudan: War, Drought, and Disaster Relief on the Nile. Westview Press, Boulder.
    Chalinder, A. (1998). Temporary Human Settlement Planning for Displaced Populations in Emergencies. RRN Good Practice Reviews No. 6, Relief and Rehabilitation Network, Overseas Development Institute (ODI), London.
    Wilhite, D. A. (ed.). (1999). Drought: A Global Assessment. Routledge, London; Hazards and Disasters: A Series of Definitive Major Works.


    F.19. Geographic Information Systems in Urban and Regional Planning:
            Applications for Desert Zones
    (3 credits)

    Prerequisites: 1st degree in either architecture or urban planning or geography

    Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
    23  

    The course is an introduction to the use of geographic information systems (GIS) in urban and regional design and planning in arid environments. It is aimed at students specializing in geography, urban and regional development. The course will be supplemented with a basic training on the use of GIS Arc View for analyzing, processing and mapping spatial data.

    Lectures:
    • Uses of GIS and statistical analysis of data
    • GIS programs: ArcView, ArcInfo, MapInfo, and ArcExpress
    • Components of a GIS program
    • Creating and analyzing maps
    • Field studies and data processing
    • Methods of classification
    Lecturer: Boris A.Portnov

    Recommended Reading:
    Chrisman, N. R. (1997). Exploring Geographic Information Systems. Wiley, New York.
    Demers, M. N. (1997). Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems.Wiley, New York.
    3. ESRI. (1996). ArcView GIS. Manual. Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, CA.


    F.20. Building Materials in Desert Areas (2 credits)

    Prerequisites: None

    Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
    2   

    The course will focus on the relation between the desert and the building materials that can be used in it and manufactured from its natural resources. The course will present the effect of the desert climate on the behavior of the building materials, the technology needed for using them, their application and durability.

    Lectures:
    • Mineral binders (gypsum, lime and portland cement).
    • Conventional and lightweight concrete and mineral and organic admixtures.
    • Technology of concrete and concrete works.
    • Wall building elements.
    • Polymeric building materials.

    Lecturer: Konstatnin Freidin

    Recommended reading:
    Young, J. F., S. Mindess, R. Gray and A. Bentur. (1998). The Science and Technology of Civil Engineering Materials. Prentice Hall, New York.
    Biggs, W. D. (1994).Construction Materials, Their Nature and Behaviour. EZ & SPON, London.
    Smith, W. F. (1996). Principles of Materials Science and Engineering. McGraw-Hill, New York.
    Soroka, I. (1993). Concrete in Hot Environments. EZ & SPON, London.


    F.21. Regional Rural Planning in Desert and Dry Regions (2 credits)

    Prerequisites: None

    Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
    2   

    Drylands dwellers suffer from a number of problems: infrastructures are unreliable or non-existent, and so is the provision of services. Such problems are exacerbated by the population's being sparse and widely spread as well as relatively poor and thus unable to pay the full cost of improved services. Various models and concepts have been developed to deal with such questions. Some of them, based on novel planning concepts, have yielded new regional and settlement forms and layouts, though the latter have not always been environmentally sensitive or responsive. Other models and concepts were transplanted from Europe to its colonies, and from the industrialized world to LDCs. In both cases the results were not always as desired, though the problems may be harder to overcome in LDC's than in highly industrialized countries.

    Lectures:
    • Physical, economic and social planning and their integration.
    • The special physical and economic problems of planning for sparsely populated regions.
    • Is planning implementation possible? Assumptions and reality.
    • Theories and conceptions of regional planning.
    • The Israeli case: a planning paradigm?
    • Planning in developed countries: Australia and the United States.
    • Planning in developing countries: Brasil, Egypt, and other parts of Africa

    Lecturers: Moshe Schwartz and Isaac A. Meir

    Recommended reading:
    Efrat, E. (1987). Development Towns in Israel - Past or Future? Achiasaf Publishing House (Hebrew).
    Howard, E. (1898). Garden Cities of To-Morrow. Faber, London.
    Portnov, B. A. and A. P. Hare. (1999). Desert Regions: Population, Migration and Environment. Springer, Berlin.
    Roberts, M. (1974). An Introduction to Town Planning Techniques. Hutchinson, London.


    F.22. Social Relations in Resettlement Communities (2 credits)

    Prerequisites: None

    Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
    2   

    The course will cover some of the social issues that must be addressed when establishing a resettlement community for refugees from drought or desertification. The course will consider related topics, including the design of buildings for housing, health, administration, and social and religious activities and their placement in the settlement; the necessary forms of social support; and the transition to a more permanent form of settlement.

    Lectures:
    • Social considerations in design of temporary resettlement Communities.
    • Initiating a social structure based on ethnic differences.
    • Social services for community support.
    • Preparing community members for permanent resettlement.

    Lecturer: A. Paul Hare

    Recommended reading:
    Moreno, J. L. (1953). Who Shall Survive? Beacon House, Beacon, NY.
    Schwartz, M. and A. P. Hare. (2000). Foreign experts and unsustainable development. Ashgate, London.
    Hare, S. E., and A. P. Hare. (1996). SYMLOG Field Theory. Praeger, Westport, CT.
    Hare, A. P., and H. H. Blumberg. (1988). Dramaturgical Analysis of Social Interaction. Praeger, New York.