E. Water Resources and Management

E.1. Utilization of Environmental Tracers in
       Groundwater Modeling
(2 1/2 credits)

Prerequisites: Basic knowledge of hydrogeology and hydrochemistry, including environmental isotopes; capability to deal with the flow and transport equations in porous and fractured flow domain; and a basic background in hydrological modeling.

Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip

This course focuses on basins with scarce hydrological data such as those in arid and semi-arid regions.

Lectures cover the following topics:

  • Uncertainties in groundwater flows in complex hydrogeological basins.
  • Principles of utilizing dissolved minerals.
  • Stable isotopes of oxygen, hydrogen, boron sulfur and strontium.
  • Radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and carbon.
  • Noble gases.
  • Multi-tracer statistical analyses to elaborate the flow pattern and hydraulic connections.
  • Numerical modeling of mass balance expressions of dissolved tracers utilizing optimization schemes.

Lecturer: E. Adar

Recommended Reading:
Yurtsever, Y. (Ed.) Mathematical Methods for Quantitative Evaluation of Isotope Data in Hydrological. IAEA - TECDOC, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria.
Yurtsever, Y. (Ed.) Manual on Mathematical Models in Hydrology. IAEA - TECDOC, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria.

E.2. Heavy Metals in Wastewater (2 credits)

Prerequisites: Chemistry, biochemistry

Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip

This course examines characteristics of heavy metals in wastewater and their removal. Domestic and industrial wastewater usually contain, among other pollutants, heavy metals, both as free metal ions and in various combined chemical forms. Biological availability of a trace metal as a required nutrient or as a toxicant is dependent on the chemical form; free metal ions are usually toxic chemical species. Most metals in effluents are associated with microorganisms thriving in the water or in complexes with organic compounds produced by microorganisms. Only partial removal of heavy metals from biological wastewater at treatment plants is reported in oxidation ponds and activated sludge.

Lecturer: D. Kaplan

Recommended Reading:
Sigel, H. (Ed.) (1984). Metal Ions in Biological Systems. In: Circulation of Metals in the Environment Vol.18, Marcel Dekker Inc. Kaplan, D., A. Abeliovich, S. Ben-Yaakov (1987). The Fate of Heavy Metals in Wastewater Stabilization Ponds. Wat. Res. 21:1189-1194.

E.3. Irrigation Technology (3 credits)

Prerequisites: Basic courses in soil physics, plant physiology, hydraulics and mathematics.

Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
21 3

The purpose of the course is to provide participants with the tools to design for optimal operation of irrigation systems, mainly in arid zones.

The course will include the following topics:

  • Water-soil-plant-atmosphere relationships; water flow in the soil and infiltration.
  • Irrigation scheduling; surface, sprinkler and trickle irrigation. Irrigation machines; aspects of run-off use; use of saline water; reuse of effluent; management modeling of irrigation systems.

Lecturer: G. Oron

Recommended Reading:
Ben-Ami, A. and A. Ofen (1984). Irrigation Engineering, Irrigation Engineering Scientific Publication, Technion, Haifa.
Cuenca, R.H.(1989). Irrigation System Design: An Engineering Approach. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
Finkel, H. (1982). Handbook of Irrigation Technology. CRS Press, Inc., Florida.
Haims, Y.Y., D.A. Moser and E.Z. Srakhiv (1992). Risk-Based Decision Making in Water Resources. American Society of Civil Engineers, New-York, VIII, p. 383.
Jensen, M.E. (Ed.) (1983). Design and Operation of Farm Irrigation Systems. American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE), St. Joseph, Michigan, p. 829.
Keller, J. and D. Karmeli (1975). Trickle Irrigation. Rain-Bird Cooperation.
Lamm, F.R. (Ed.) (1995). Microirrigation for a Changing Word: Conserving Resources/Preserving the Environment. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan, p. 978.
Nakayame, F.S. and D.A. Bucks (1986). Trickle Irrigation for Crops Production: Design, Operation and Management. Elsevier Science Pub., Amsterdam, p. 383.
Pettygrove, G.S. and T. Asano (Ed.) (1990). Irrigation with Reclaimed Municipal Wastewater: a Guidance Manual. Lewis Publishers Inc.
Walker, W.R. and G.V. Skogerboe (1988). Surface Irrigation: Theory and Practice. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliff, N.J.

E.4. Meteorology of the Desert Atmosphere (3 credits)

Prerequisites: Knowledge of fundamental classical physics and elementary calculus; elementary differential equations and vector analysis.

Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip

This course presents:

  • A review of atmospheric motion: analysis of forces; accelerated reference frames; conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy; scale analysis. Pressure coordinates; thermal wind; geostrophic and gradient flow; kinematics, trajectories; circulation and vorticity; fronts; wave motion.
  • Physical processes in atmospheric dynamics: water in the air; radiation heating & cooling; particles in the atmosphere.
  • The desert atmosphere: observations within and the circulation of its boundary layer; free air circulation in the desert; the spatial-temporal variation of the desert inversion height and its relation to dispersion of pollutants and of dust; nocturnal drainage winds along slopes in the desert; rainfall patterns in the desert; synoptic climatology of desert circulation patterns and their relation to rainfall; dew deposition; chaotic phenomena in meteorological processes.

Lecturers: A. Zangvil, G. Burde, Z. Offer

Recommended Reading:
Holton, J. (1980). Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology.
Haltiner, G.J. and R.T. Williams (1980). Numerical Prediction and Dynamic Meteorology. Wiley & Sons.
Moran, J.M. and M.D. Morgan (1980). Meteorology: The Atmosphere and the Science of Weather. MacMillan.
Richard, S.L. (1990). Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics. Cambridge Univ. Press.
Brown, R.A. (1991). Fluid Mechanics of the Atmosphere. Academic Press.

E.5. Precipitation Regimes in the Negev Desert (2 credits)

Prerequisites: Knowledge of fundamental classical physics and elementary calculus; elementary differential equations and vector analysis.

Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip

This course covers the following topics:

  • Basic meteorological processes responsible for precipitation (or the lack of it) in the Negev; review of atmospheric dynamics.
  • Review of physical meteorology: water in the atmosphere; basic rain and cloud physics; particles in the atmosphere; radiation heating and cooling.
  • The desert atmosphere: circulation in the boundary layer; circulation in the free atmosphere; synoptic meteorology.
  • Spatial and temporal rainfall patterns in the Negev Desert.
  • Effects of possible climatic change.
  • Synoptic climatology of desert rainfall: large-scale circulation patterns and their relation to rainfall in the Negev.
  • Atmospheric moisture and its relation to Negev precipitation: atmospheric moisture fields on different space and time scales; water vapor transport and convergence.
  • Interactions between the moisture field and the atmospheric circulation and its effect on rainfall.
  • Sources of moisture (remote vs. local).

Lecturer: A. Zangvil

Recommended Reading:
Bluestein Howard, B., (1992) Synoptic Dynamic Meteorology in Midlatitudes. Vol. 1 Principles of Kinematics and Dynamics. Oxford University Press, New York Oxford.
Zangvil, A. and D. Druian, (1990) Upper Trough Axis Orientation and the Spatial Distribution of Rainfall over Israel. Internat. J. Climatol., 10, 57-62.

E.6. Migration Processes in the Unsaturated Zone of Soil (2 credits)

Prerequisites: B.Sc. degree in engineering or science; basic knowledge of hydrology, calculus and programming.

Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip

This course presents a method for modeling migration processes of water, heat and solutes in the unsaturated zone of soil. Hydrogeological, technical, physical and biological aspects are reviewed. State-of the art analytical and numerical solution models and a method for estimating migration parameters are presented.

Lectures will be given on the following topics:

  • Main objectives of migration processes simulation.
  • Soil as a multiphase and multi-component system; water flow in the unsaturated zone.
  • Capillary pressure, Richard's equation; molecular diffusion, Fik's law; transport by advection and dispersion.
  • Coupling of chemistry and transport in pollutant transport modeling.
  • Techniques for estimating parameters.
  • General principles of simulating underground migration processes.

Lecturer: A. Yakirevich

Recommended Reading:
Bear, J. (1972). Dynamic of Fluids in Porous Media. American Elsevier, New York.
Bear, J. and A. Verruijt (1987). Modeling Groundwater Flow and Pollution. D. Reidel, Dordrecht.
Bresler, E., B.L. McNeal and D.L. Carter (1982). Saline and Sodic Soils. Principles, Dynamics, Modeling. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Fried, J.J. (1975). Groundwater Pollution. Theory, Methodology, Modeling and Practical Rules. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Hillel, D. (1971). Soil and Water: Physical Principles and Processes. Academic Press, New York.
Marsily, G.de. (1986). Quantitative Hydrogeology. Groundwater Hydrology for Engineers. Academic Press, Orlando.

E.7. Modeling Transport Phenomena in Porous Media (2 credits)

Prerequisites: Courses in linear algebra integration and differentiation, ordinary and partial differential equations, mass, momentum and energy transfer mechanics.

Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip

This course introduces mathematical modeling of transport phenomena in porous media with special emphasis on processes in soil and groundwater systems. Lectures cover: microscopic balance equations; macroscopic balance equations; advective flux; complete transport model; mass transport of a single fluid phase under isothermal conditions; diffusive flux; modeling contaminant transport.

Selected topics include: multi-component mass balance with chemical reactions in continuum and lumped parameter models; inverse modeling using environmental tracers; shock waves with mass transport in saturated thermo-elastic porous medium.

Lecturer: S. Sorek

Recommended Reading:
Bear, J. and Y. Bachmat (1990) Introduction to Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Porous Media. Kluwer.
Marsily, G. de (1986) Quantitative Hydrology: Groundwater Hydrology for Engineers. Academic Press. Jacquez, J.(1072) Compartment Analysis (2nd ed). Elsevier.

E.8. Environmental Tracers (Isotopes and Hydro-chemistry) in Arid Zone Hydrology (3 credits)

Prerequisites: Basic knowledge of hydrogeology and hydrochemistry including environmental isotopes; capability of dealing with the flow and transport equations in porous and fractured flow domain.

Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip
2  2

This course provides students with a basic understanding of the following topics:

  • An introduction to the properties and abundance of natural hydrochemical and isotopic tracers (both stable and radioactive isotopes) and their distribution in the hydrologic cycle.
  • Utilization of isotope measurement as a tool for the study of water resources in general, and in drylands in particular.
  • An assessment of flow pattern and sources of ground water recharging by multi-variable statistical analyses.
  • Practice in the use of tracers for the identification of aquifer physical parameters.

Lecturer: E. Adar

Recommended Reading:
Gat, J. and A. Gonfiantini (Eds.) (1981). Stable Isotope Hydrology: Deuterium and Oxygen 18 in the Water Cycle, IAEA Tech. Report Series 210.
IAEA Guidebook on Nuclear Techniques in Hydrology (1983). Fontes and Fritz (Eds.) (1986). Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry, Vol. 1 & 2 Elsevier Publ.
Mazor, E. (1990). Applied Chemical and Isotopic Ground Water Hydrology. Open University Press.
Adar, E.M. and Ch. Liebundgut (Eds.) (1995). Application of Tracers in Arid Zone Hydrology. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Application of Tracers in Arid Zone Hydrology, August 22-26, 1994, Vienna, Austria. IAHS Pub. No. 232.
Drever, J.I. The Geochemistry of Natural Waters. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Mazor, E. (1997). Chemical and Isotopic Groundwater Hydrology; The Applied Approach. Marcel Dekker, Inc., N.Y., Basle, Hong Kong.

E.9. A Quantitative Approach to Water Resources Management in the Desert (3 credits)

Prerequisites: Basic courses in operations research and computer programming.

Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip

This course provides participants with the quantitative and analytical tools for analyzing water and wastewater systems; these tools are needed for selecting optimal design and operation of such systems. Operations research methods will be used.

The course deals with ways to identify, develop and define optimal and sustainable use of various water sources, primarily in arid regions. It will include an introduction to systems engineering with special emphasis on solving water resources and environmental problems. Projects discussed, defined and solved include optimal water supply system, wastewater and solid waste treatment and disposal. Hydroelectric systems and multipurpose use of water will also be considered. The course will include home assignments and 30 lecture hours during the semester.

Lecturer: G. Oron

Recommended Reading:
Budnick, F.S., R. Mojeena and T.E.Vollman (1977). Principles of Operations Research for Management, Richard Irwin Inc., Ontario, p. 756.
Haimes, Y.Y. (1977). Hierarchical Analyses of Water Resources Systems, McGraw Hill, p. 478.
Luenberger, D.G. (1973). Introduction to Linear and Nonlinear Programming. Addison-Wesley, p. 356.
Whitehouse, G.E. and B.L.Wechsler (1976). Applied Operations Research: A Survey. John Wiley, p. 434.
Taha, H.A. (1989). Operations Research: An Introduction. Maxwell MacMillan Int., 4th Edition, p. 876.

E.10. Groundwater Microbiology (2 credits)

Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip

  • Groundwater: introduction and environments.
  • Groundwater microbiology, types of bacteria, sampling problems and processes, bacterial growth and metabolism.
  • Microbial processes in prisitine and in contaminated groundwater, chemical and physical conditions.
  • Rates of biodegradation, zones of activity, redox reactions, energy yields and efficiency for different carbon substrates.
  • Bioremediation of groundwater: principles, site conditions, decision-making and strategies.

Lecturer: M. I. M. Soares

Recommended Reading:
Chapelle, F.H. (1993). Ground-Water Microbiology and Geochemistry. Wiley, John & Sons.
Atlas, R. M. and R. Bartha (1993). Microbial Ecology. Fundamentals and Applications. 3rd Edition. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company.

E.11. Environmental Microbiology (2 credits)

Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip

  • Introduction: history, microbial world, cell metabolism, microbial genetics and evolution.
  • Microbial interactions: among microbial populations, with plants and animals, microbial communities and ecosystems.
  • Microbial habitats: colonization, natural habitats (soil, water and air), effects of environmental extremes (temperature, pH, salinity, pH, redox potential, etc.).
  • Biogeochemical cycling: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous, iron, and other elements.
  • Applied aspects: biodeterioration control, bioremediation of xenobiotic and inorganic pollutants, recovery of metals and fuels, biomass production, ecological control of pests and disease.
Lecturer: M. I. M. Soares

Recommended Reading:
Atlas, R. M. and R. Bartha (1993). Microbial Ecology. Fundamentals and Applications. 3rd Edition. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company.
Lynch, J. M. and J. E. Hobbie (1988). Microorganisms in Action: Concepts and Applications in Microbial Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publishers.
Madigan, T. M., J. M. Martinko and J. Parker (1997). Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 8th Edition. Prentice-Hall International.

E.12. Biodegradation Process of Synthetic Organic Compound in Water And Soil (2 credit)

Lectures Exercise Laboratory Field Trip

The aim of the course is to equip the student with tools to comprehend the importance and complexity of biotransformation processes of synthetic organic compounds

During the course the following topics will be covered:

  1. Sources of synthetic organic compounds polluting soil and water.
  2. Microbial versatility in attacking synthetic organic compounds.
  3. Research methods used in studying biodegradation processes in the lab and in the field.
  4. Biodegradation of oil and gasoline components.
  5. Microbial metabolism of halo-organic compounds.
  6. Biodegradation processes of agro-chemicals.
  7. Microbial metabolism of energetic material-explosives.
  8. A review of the biological methods employed for clean up of soil and water polluted with synthetic organic compounds.

Lecturer: Zeev Ronen

Recommended reading:
Alexander, M. (1988). Biodegradation and Bioremediation.
Hurst, H., et al. (1997). Manuel of Environmental Microbiology
Young, L.Y., C.E. Cerniglia (1995). Microbial Transformation and Degradation of Toxic Organic Chemicals.